## Electric Charge

When matter is put in an electromagnetic field, it acquires an electric charge, which causes it to experience a force. A positive or negative electric charge can exist (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). The term “neutral” refers to an item that has no net charge. Classical electrodynamics is the name given to an early understanding of how charged substances interact, and it is still true for issues that do not need consideration of quantum phenomena.

The net charge of an isolated system, the quantity of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge, cannot vary since it is a conserved attribute. Subatomic particles transport electric charge. The negative charge is carried by electrons in ordinary matter, while positive charge is carried by protons in atom nuclei. A piece of matter will have a negative charge if there are more electrons than protons, a positive charge if there are less, and a neutral charge if there are equal amounts. The charge has been quantized.

It comes in integer multiples of individual small units called the elementary charge, e, which is about 1.6021019 coulombs and is the smallest charge that can exist freely. The charge of the proton is +e, whereas the charge of the electron is e. Electric charges produce electric fields. The magnetic field also is produced by a moving charge. The electromagnetic (or Lorentz) force results from the interaction of electric charges with just an electromagnetic field. It is one of physics’ four basic forces.

Quantum electrodynamics is the study of charged particle interactions mediated by photons. The coulomb (C), named after French scientist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, is the SI-derived unit of electric charge. The ampere-hour is also commonly used in electrical engineering (Ah). The elementary charge (e) is commonly used as a unit in physics and chemistry. The Faraday constant is frequently used in chemistry to calculate the charge on a mole of electrons. The lowercase letter q is frequently used to signify charge.

## Electric Field

The electric field is really a physical environment that encompasses electrically charged particles & imposes force on all the other energetic particles in the field, drawing or pushing them. It can also refer to the physical field of a system of charged particles. Electric fields are formed by changing electrical currents or magnetic forces. Perhaps one of humanity’s greatest four fundamental forces (or interactions), the electrostatic field expresses itself in both electric and magnetic.

Electric fields are significant in many areas of physics, and they are used in electrical technology on a daily basis. The electric field, for example, is the attractive force that holds the atomic nucleus and electrons together in atoms in atomic physics and chemistry. It is also the force that causes chemical bonds between atoms to form molecules. The electric field is measured in volts per metre (V/m), which is exactly identical to newtons per coulomb (N/C).

At any location in space, the electric field is defined as the force (per unit charge) that a vanishingly tiny positive test charge would experience if held there. The electric field is a vector field since it is described in terms of force, and force is a vector (i.e. it has both magnitude and direction). : 469–70 This type of vector field is commonly referred to as a force field. Because they both obey an inverse-square law with distance, the electric field behaves similarly to the gravitational field between two masses.

This is the foundation for Coulomb’s law, which says that the electric field varies with the source charge and inversely with the square of the distance from the source for stationary charges. This implies that if the source charge doubled, the electric field would double as well, and if you moved twice as far away from the source, the field would only be one-quarter as strong.

The electric field can be seen as a collection of lines having the same direction at each location as the field, an idea introduced by Michael Faraday, whose phrase ‘lines of force’ is still used sometimes. The strength of the field in this example is related to the density of the lines, which is an important attribute. The field lines are the pathways that a point positive charge would take if it were forced to travel within the field, analogous to the trajectories that masses would take if they were forced to move inside a gravitational field.

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